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Page history last edited by Cliff Chao 8 years, 9 months ago



I. Bonding

A. Ionic Bonding

B. Covalent Bonding

C. Van der Waals forces

1. Hydrogen Bonding

II. Atom

A. Proton

1. Nucleus

B. Neutron

1. Isotope

An isotope is a different form of an element. An isotope has different amounts of neutrons compared to other forms of the element.

C. Electron

III. Monomers

A. Polymers

1. Carbohydrates

Store energy. Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Characterized by carbon rings.

a. Monosaccharides

b. Polysaccharides

(1) Oligosaccharide

(2) Polysaccharide


(3) Disaccharide

Sucrose is a disaccharride. It contains one glucose monomer and one fructose monomer.

2. Lipids

Store energy, cushion organs. Made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. Characterized by long fatty acid chains.

a. Unsaturated

Contains one or more double bonded carbons in the fatty acid chains.

b. Saturated

All single bonded fatty acid chains

3. Proteins

Used in muscles. Catalyzes many bodily functions. Composed of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen.

4. Nucleic Acids

a. DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

b. RNA

Ribonucleic acid

IV. pH

The amount of hydrogen ions in a solution. Water has a pH of 7.

A. Acid

1. Buffer

A solution that adjusts the number of hydrogen ions to keep the pH within a certain area.

B. Base

V. Water

A. Properties of Water

Cohesive and Adhesive. Has high surface tension. Has high specific heat Solid H2O is less dense than its liquid form.

B. Hydrolysis

Splitting of water into hydrogen ions and oxygen.



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